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Today in History 7/06/20

1307 – King Edward I of England died on his way to subdue the new Scottish king, Robert the Bruce.

1438 – King Charles VII of France issued the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, restricting the rights of the pope and in many cases making the pope’s jurisdiction subject to the will of the king.

1807 – The first of the Treaties of Tilsit was signed between France and Russia after Napoleon’s victories over the Russians and Prussians.

1865 – Mary Surratt is executed by the U.S. government for her role as a conspirator in Abraham Lincoln’s assassination. Surratt, who owned a tavern in Surrattsville (now Clinton), Maryland, had to convert her row house in Washington, D.C., into a boardinghouse as a result of financial difficulties. Located a few blocks from Ford’s Theatre, where Lincoln was murdered, this house served as the place where a group of Confederate supporters, including John Wilkes Booth, conspired to assassinate the president. It was Surratt’s association with Booth that ultimately led to her conviction, though debate continues as to the extent of her involvement and whether it really warranted so harsh a sentence.

1900 – Warren Earp, the youngest of the famous clan of gun fighting brothers, is murdered in an Arizona saloon. Nicholas and Virginia Earp raised a family of five sons and four daughters on a series of farms in Illinois and Iowa. Three of the Earps’ sons grew up to win lasting infamy. On October 26, 1881, Wyatt, Virgil, and Morgan Earp fought a brief shoot-out with the Clantons and McLaurys in Tombstone, Arizona. The Earp brothers, along with their friend Doc Holliday, managed to kill all three of their opponents. The gun battle — which was named after a nearby livery stable called the O.K. Corral — later became a favorite topic of sensationalistic dime novel writers and moviemakers. Ever since, Wyatt, Virgil, and Morgan have been icons of the Old West.

1906 – Satchel Paige, a professional baseball pitcher who earned legendary fame during his many years in the Negro leagues, is believed to have been born this day in Mobile, Alabama.

 1930 – On July 7, 1930, construction of the Hoover Dam begins. Over the next five years, a total of 21,000 men would work ceaselessly to produce what would be the largest dam of its time, as well as one of the largest manmade structures in the world. Although the dam would take only five years to build, its construction was nearly 30 years in the making.

1937 – Chinese and Japanese troops clashed near the Marco Polo Bridge outside Beijing prior to World War II.

1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini became the first U.S. citizen to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.

1976 –  For the first time in history, women are enrolled into the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. On May 28, 1980, 62 of these female cadets graduated and were commissioned as second lieutenants. The United States Military Academy – the first military school in America – was founded by Congress in 1802 for the purpose of educating and training young men in the theory and practice of military science.

1978 – Czech-born tennis player Martina Navratilova defeated Chris Evert to win her first of nine Wimbledon singles titles.

1981 –  President Ronald Reagan nominates Sandra Day O’Connor, an Arizona court of appeals judge, to be the first woman Supreme Court justice in U.S. history. On September 21, the Senate unanimously approved her appointment to the nation’s highest court, and on September 25 she was sworn in by Chief Justice Warren Burger. Sandra Day was born in El Paso, Texas, in 1930. She grew up on her family’s cattle ranch in southeastern Arizona and attended Stanford University, where she studied economics.

2005 –  The London transit system was struck by coordinated suicide bomb attacks that killed 39 people and injured more than 700.

2019 –  Led by Megan Rapinoe, the U.S. women’s soccer team defeated the Netherlands to win its fourth World Cup.